Agusan del Sur is found in southern Philippines particularly in the island of Mindanao. The province is situated in the landlocked area of Caraga Region along the Maharlika Highway that links the three major island groups of the country, namely: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.

Being the largest province in the Caraga Region with a land area of 8,965.5 sq. km., it occupied almost half (45%) of the region’s area. The municipalities of Loreto, La Paz, Esperanza and San Luis are the four largest municipalities which contributed almost 60% of the province’s land area. Forestland constitutes 76% of the land area, while alienable and disposable land occupies the remaining area (24%).

The province, which has a plane and rolling topography appropriate for agriculture, forestry and industry, portrays a shape of an elongated basin with mountain ranges in the eastern and western portion which form a valley occupying the central and longitudinal section of the land.

The mighty Agusan River, which is the third largest and longest in the country, served as highway for the Spanish Colonizers in gaining access to the inner northeastern Mindanao during the Spanish regime. Its headwaters originate from Compostela Valley in the south, then flow towards Agusan del Norte in the north, rush forward almost in the middle of the valley and drain at Butuan Bay in a 350 kilometers distance. The river has 12 tributaries that fed by numerous streams and creeks. The southern part of the province is teemed with many swamps, and lakes, the biggest of which is Talacogon Lake. Agusan Marsh is found along these areas, which is one of the most ecologically significant wetlands in the Philippines and also recognized by RAMSAR Convention as Wetland of International Importance. In 1996, former President Fidel V. Ramos declared it as Wildlife Sanctuary.

The province is geographically located below the typhoon belt but is usually affected by depressions forming in the typhoon regions of Visayas and the province of Surigao del Norte, therefore, it is seldom visited by typhoon.

The province has a pleasant climate (which falls under Type II of Philippine climate map on the modified coronas classification) with very pronounced wet season usually occurring in the month of October to January and no single dry month, but months with low rainfall are from March to July. For the year 2012, average monthly rainfall is 237 mm.

 
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